Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Osmeriformes
(Freshwater smelts) > Osmeridae
Etymology: Hypomesus: Greek, hypo = under + Greek,mesos = a half (Ref. 45335); nipponensis: From the Japanese name for the Kuril Island chain.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; pelagic; anadromous (Ref. 51243). Temperate
Asia: Japan to the Korean Peninsula (not confirmed by Ref. 33312). USA report adverse ecological impact after introduction.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 6 - 7 cm
Max length : 17.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5723)
soft rays: 12 - 19;
Vertebrae: 53 - 57. Vomer T-shaped with well-developed posterior process; periphery of glossohyal bone with single row of conical teeth, central part toothless; gill rakers 10(7-11) + 23(20-25) = 32(29-36); pyloric caeca 4(1-6); base of adipose fin less then 20% of head length; eye large; adipose eyelid absent.
Found in open water of impoundments and their tributaries, in fresh and brackish water. Primarily a brackish water species (Ref.33312). Anadromous (Ref. 37812).
Saruwatari, T., J.A. López and T.W. Pietsch, 1997. A revision of the ormerid genus Hypomesus Gill (Teleostei: Salmoniformes), with a description of a new species from the southern Kuril Islands. Species Diversity 2:59-82. (Ref. 33312)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Potential pest (Ref. 13364)
Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5313 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00182 - 0.00830), b=3.15 (2.96 - 3.34), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.4 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (tm=1; Fec = 1,033; post-spawning mortality almost 100%).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (29 of 100) .