Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range ? - 1431 m (Ref. 58018). Tropical
Eastern Central Pacific: ranges from Mazatlan, Mexico to Panama.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Found on the substrate but not burrowing (Ref. 35597). Oviparous (Ref. 35597). Planktonic leptocephali (Ref. 35597).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Charter, S.R., 1996. Nettastomatidae: duckbill eels. p. 135-139. In H.G. Moser (ed.) The early stages of fishes in the California Current region. California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations (CalCOFI) Atlas No. 33. 1505 p. (Ref. 35597)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 7.1 - 11.7, mean 9.8 °C (based on 23 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5020 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00060 (0.00023 - 0.00155), b=3.09 (2.87 - 3.31), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (48 of 100) .