Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Syngnathiformes
(Pipefishes and seahorses) > Syngnathidae
(Pipefishes and seahorses) > Hippocampinae
Etymology: Hippocampus: Greek, ippos = horse + Greek,kampe = curvature (Ref. 45335). More on authors: Jordan & Gilbert.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; non-migratory; depth range 0 - 5 m (Ref. 52034). Subtropical; 33°N - 18°N, 98°W - 64°W
Western Atlantic: Bermuda, southern Florida (USA), Bahamas and the entire Gulf of Mexico. International trade is monitored through a licensing system (CITES II, since 5.15.04).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 2.1  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 5.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251); max. reported age: 1 years (Ref. 12238)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Shallow grass flats, especially in association with Zostera and other seagrass; periodically found in floating vegetation. Diurnal, males more site faithful than females. Ovoviviparous (Ref. 205). The male carries the eggs in a brood pouch which is found under the tail (Ref. 205). Specimens lose their skin filaments in aquaria (Ref. 30915). Has been reared in captivity (Ref. 35420).
Monogamous mating is observed as both obligate and genetic (Ref. 52884). Male carries the eggs in a brood pouch (Ref. 205).
Lourie, S.A., A.C.J. Vincent and H.J. Hall, 1999. Seahorses: an identification guide to the world's species and their conservation. Project Seahorse, London. 214 p. (Ref. 30915)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 119314)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 23.4 - 27.8, mean 26.6 (based on 229 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00156 - 0.00968), b=2.99 (2.77 - 3.21), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.5 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tm=0.4; tmax=1; assuming Fec=100 (approx. 3 generations/year)).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (37 of 100) .