Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Heterodontiformes
(Bullhead and horn sharks) > Heterodontidae
(Bullhead, horn, or Port Jackson sharks)
Etymology: Heterodontus: Greek, heteros = other + Greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 3 - 40 m (Ref. 5227), usually 16 - 30 m (Ref. 54549). Tropical; 0°S - 10°S, 90°W - 71°W
Eastern Pacific: Peru (including offshore islands) and the Galapagos Islands. There might be another Heterodontus species from Peru which is Heterodontus peruanus, but these two cannot be separated as of this time for lack of materials examined.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 107 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5227)
Inhabits sand flat and rocky, boulder strewn reef areas, with sand between outcroppings in inshore continental and insular waters. Rests motionless on the bottom. Is docile, non-aggressive and a poor swimmer (Ref. 5227). Nocturnal (Ref. 43278). Feeds on shellfish, crabs, and small invertebrates (Ref. 28023). Oviparous (Ref. 50449). Size at birth (for a newly hatched male) is 17 cm.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).
Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 1 - Hexanchiformes to Lamniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/1):1-249. Rome, FAO. (Ref. 247)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 17.7 - 23.2, mean 20.5 °C (based on 16 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5059 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00372 (0.00160 - 0.00860), b=3.15 (2.95 - 3.35), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.50 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (71 of 100) .