Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Syngnathiformes
(Pipefishes and seahorses) > Syngnathidae
(Pipefishes and seahorses) > Syngnathinae
Etymology: Heraldia: From the Old german, xariwald = army rule (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 2 - 15 m (Ref. 5316). Temperate
Eastern Indian Ocean: southern Australia, from Geographe Bay, Western Australia to Terrigal, New South Wales.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 6 - ? cm
Max length : 9.2 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5316)
Adults occur in rocky reefs. Appear to feed nocturnally, and usually found swimming upside down in caves or under ledges during the day. Ovoviviparous (Ref. 205). Males carry the eggs in a brood pouch which is found under the tail (Ref. 205). Males may be brooding at 6.3 cm SL.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Male carries the eggs in a brood pouch (Ref. 205).
Dawson, C.E., 1985. Indo-Pacific pipefishes (Red Sea to the Americas). The Gulf Coast Research Laboratory Ocean Springs, Mississippi, USA. (Ref. 5316)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 14.9 - 22.8, mean 17.7 (based on 323 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00049 (0.00022 - 0.00111), b=3.10 (2.91 - 3.29), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.4 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .