Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Cichlidae
(Cichlids) > Pseudocrenilabrinae
Etymology: Hemichromis: Greek, hemis = half + Greek, chromis = a fish, perhaps a perch (Ref. 45335); guttatus: From the Latin "guttatus" = speckled, apparently referring to the pattern of black dots in the cheek and opercular region of the type material (Ref. 43352). More on author: Günther.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; brackish; benthopelagic. Tropical
Africa: coastal rivers from Sierra Leone (Ref. 81260) to Cameroon, excepted Lower Volta basin (Ref. 5644). A forest associated species (Ref. 5644). Introduced around 1970 in a stream fed by hot springs in Villach (Austria) (Ref. 59043).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 12.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5644)
Morphology | Morphometrics
(total): 13 - 15;
soft rays: 7 - 9;
Vertebrae: 25. Diagnosis: mouth small, premaxilla moderately protractile (Ref. 43352). Snout short (Ref. 43352) and obtuse, scarcely longer than eye (Ref. 522). 2 middle teeth of upper jaw scarcely longer than others; scales on cheek in 3-4 series (Ref. 552). Pharyngeal bone roughly triangular, heavily dentigerous (Ref. 43352), with 22-24 teeth along posterior margin (Ref. 3032, 43352). Pharyngeal teeth bicuspid with clearly defined minor cusp (Ref. 3032, 43352). Median pharyngeal teeth non-molariform (Ref. 3032). Orbit narrow, caudal peduncle deep (Ref. 43352). Dorsal fin commences before root of pectoral (Ref. 552). Operculum with large black spot (Ref. 552), another black oval spot on side of body (Ref. 552, 3032, 43352, 81260), latter sometimes absent (Ref. 81260). Black spot on caudal peduncle normally present, small and ovoid (Ref. 81260). Sides of head with round black spots (Ref. 552). Irregular distributed pattern of blue spangling on head, body and unpaired fins (Ref. 43352, 81260). Never with multiple series of distinct blotches or bars on flanks (Ref. 81260).
Eurytopic; found most frequently in association with stands of emergent or submerged aquatic plants; particularly abundant in shallower and quieter stretches of large rivers, in small lateral tributaries of such streams, in oxbow lakes and in swampy habitats; even maintains breeding populations in coastal lagoons; absent from rapids zone of streams or in headwaters flowing through montane forest (Ref. 43352). Forest-associated species (Ref. 43352, 52307). Pair-bonding, substrate brooders (Ref. 52307, 81260). Aquarium keeping: aggressive species, requires sufficient space to build territories; omnivore; spawns up to 300 eggs which hatch after 2 days, young are free-swimming after 5 days (Ref. 57572).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Reported to form pairs. Female deposits eggs on exposed hard surfaces such as stones or wood. Both parents guard larvae and juveniles for about 4 weeks (Ref. 59043).
Daget, J. and G.G. Teugels, 1991. Hemichromis. p. 187-194. In J. Daget, J.-P. Gosse, G.G. Teugels and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde (eds.) Check-list of the freshwater fishes of Africa, CLOFFA, ISNB, Brussels; MRAC, Tervuren; and ORSTOM, Paris. Vol. 4. (Ref. 5644)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: ; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01479 (0.00696 - 0.03143), b=2.97 (2.80 - 3.14), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (16 of 100) .