Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes/Percoidei
(Perchs) > Percidae
(Perches) > Percinae
Etymology: Gymnocephalus: Greek, gymnos = naked + Greek, kephale = head (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; pH range: 6.8 - 7.8; dH range: 10 - 20. Temperate; 10°C - 20°C (Ref. 12468)
Europe: Danube (from delta to Germany) and Dniepr (from delta to Kiev) drainages; expected in Dniestr. In Appendix III of the Bern Convention (protected fauna).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 15.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 59043)
(total): 14 - 16. Distinguished uniquely from its congeners by its body depth, 27-30% SL. Differs further from other species of the genus by the combination of the following characters: flank grey with a few large, irregular, dark blotches; and dorsal fin with 14-16 spines (Ref. 59043).
Inhabits open sandy and muddy bottom in backwaters and large rivers with moderate current. Undertake migration from river mainstreams to backwaters to spawn. Nocturnal, feeding on small invertebrates (Ref. 59043).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01096 (0.00491 - 0.02448), b=3.04 (2.85 - 3.23), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.37 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (29 of 100) .