Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Pleuronectidae
(Righteye flounders) > Pleuronectinae
Etymology: Glyptocephalus: Greek, glyptes = carver + Greek, kephale = head (Ref. 45335). More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 18 - 1570 m (Ref. 5951), usually 45 - 366 m (Ref. 6263). Temperate; 2°C - 6°C (Ref. 6263); 70°N - 36°N, 79°W - 26°E
Eastern Atlantic: Northern Spain to northern Norway. Western Atlantic: Gulf of St. Lawrence and Grand Banks in Canada to North Carolina in USA (Ref. 7251).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 30.4  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 60.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4705); max. published weight: 2.5 kg (Ref. 35388); max. reported age: 25 years (Ref. 6263)
soft rays: 85 - 102. Pectoral fin of eyed side shorter than head. Distal part of pectoral fin blackish (Ref. 232). Large mucus pores on the blind side of the head. Uniform coloration, rough scales. Body elongated with complete straight lateral line (Ref. 35388).
Inhabits soft mud bottoms in fairly deep water (Ref. 9988). Benthic (Ref. 58426). Feeds on crustaceans, polychaetes, brittle stars (Ref. 9988) and fishes (Ref. 58426). Marketed fresh or frozen; eaten steamed, fried, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988).
Eggs and larvae are pelagic.
Cooper, J.A. and F. Chapleau, 1998. Monophyly and intrarelationships of the family Pleuronectidae (Pleuronectiformes), with a revised classification. Fish. Bull. 96(4):686-726. (Ref. 30193)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 0.6 - 11.4, mean 7 °C (based on 1302 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00646 (0.00531 - 0.00785), b=3.06 (3.01 - 3.11), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.2 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 5.3 (4.8 - 8.2) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 13 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.15-0.2; tmax=25).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (68 of 100) .