Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Brackish; demersal. Temperate
Southwest Pacific: throughout New Zealand.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 9.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 13730)
(total): 24 - 27;
soft rays: 24 - 26;
Vertebrae: 42 - 44. Spines of first dorsal fin high, often as high as second dorsal, with posterior spines longer than anterior. Supraorbital tentacles simple. No sensory papillae on frontal, temporal and upper
part of otic areas. Dorsal fin formula V-0N-0-1-0-1. Ten procurrent rays in upper caudal lobe, 9 in lower lobe; in upper lobe, 1 procurrent ray between upper lobe and posterior epural, 5 opposite epurals, 1 between anterior epural and neural spine of second preural, 2 anterior to neural spine of third preural vertebra; in lower lobe, 8 procurrent rays opposite haemal spine of second preural vertebra, 1 opposite haemal spine of third vertebra.
Adults occur in estuaries and lower reaches of rivers and streams (Ref. 13227) where
there is cover from rocks and submerged trees (Ref. 84085). Eggs are hemispherical and covered with numerous sticky threads that anchor them in the algae on the nesting sites (Ref. 240). Larvae are planktonic which occur primarily in shallow, nearshore waters (Ref. 94114).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Fricke, R., 1994. Tripterygiid fishes of Australia, New Zealand and the southwest Pacific Ocean (Teleostei). Theses Zool. 24:1-585. (Ref. 13227)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00550 (0.00251 - 0.01205), b=3.08 (2.89 - 3.27), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.4 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .