Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes/Percoidei
() > Percidae
(Perches) > Etheostomatinae
Etymology: Etheostoma: Greek, etheo = to strain + Greek, stoma = mouth; Rafinesque said "various mouths", but Jordan and Evermann suggest the name might have been intended as "Heterostoma (Ref. 45335); blennioides: blennioides meaning blenny-like (Ref. 10294). More on author: Rafinesque.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic. Temperate; 4°C - 18°C (Ref. 2059); 43°N - 34°N
North America: Great Lakes and Mississippi River basins from New York and Maryland to eastern Kansas and Oklahoma in the USA, and from Ontario in Canada south to Georgia, Alabama and Arkansas in the USA; and Atlantic Slope in Mohawk, Susquehanna and Potomac drainages in New York and Virginia, USA.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 17.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5723); common length : 5.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12193); max. reported age: 5 years (Ref. 12193)
Inhabit rocky riffles of creeks and small to medium rivers, and shores of large lakes (Ref. 5723, 10294). Juveniles feed on midge larvae and microcrustaceans; adults consume midge larvae, blackfly larvae, and other immature aquatic insects, primarily mayflies and caddisflies (Ref. 10294). Distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 36980). Eggs are found attached to the substrate unguarded (Ref. 7043).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 36980). Eggs are found attached to the substrate abandoned (Ref. 7043).
Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 432 p. (Ref. 5723)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00537 (0.00231 - 0.01249), b=3.14 (2.94 - 3.34), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.45 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tmax=5; Fec=404-1,832).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (29 of 100) .