Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes/Serranoidei
(Groupers) > Serranidae
(Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 30 - ? m (Ref. 89707). Tropical; 27°N - 10°N, 114°W - 105°W (Ref. 89707)
Eastern Central Pacific: Baja California to Clipperton Island.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 61.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 89707)
soft rays: 8. Distinguished by the following characteristics: robust and compressed body; exposed end of upper jaw; 3 broad, flat spines on edge of operculum; preoperculum without spines; rounded caudal fin; lateral line complete, ending at base of tail and smoothly arched; rough and relatively small scales; 16-18 scales above the lateral line (Ref. 089707).
Insular, reed-associated species inhabiting depths to at least 30 m (Ref. 089707).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Eschmeyer, W.N. (ed.), 2003. Catalog of fishes. Updated database version of March 2003. Catalog databases as made available to FishBase in March 2003. (Ref. 46206)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01148 (0.00558 - 0.02364), b=3.04 (2.88 - 3.20), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (49 of 100) .