Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; amphidromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 26 - 85 m (Ref. 122480), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 33°N - 27°S
Indo-West Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to Indonesia, New Guinea and Philippines, north to Taiwan and Japan, south to northern Australia (Ref. 9800); including the Persian Gulf (Ref. 114980, 115291).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9800); common length : 23.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5450)
Found inshore, on sand or mud bottoms, reefs, estuaries and harbors. Maximum depth for this species is less than 50 m. Feeds on benthic invertebrates (Ref. 5213). Breeds close inshore during spring (Ref. 5324). Flesh edible, but not esteemed (Ref. 12484).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Heemstra, P.C., 1997. Drepanidae. Sicklefishes. In K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) FAO Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes. The Western Central Pacific. (Ref. 9800)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.2 - 29.1, mean 28.2 °C (based on 1412 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02570 (0.01391 - 0.04749), b=2.99 (2.82 - 3.16), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.37 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (42 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 46 [24, 85] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.622 [0.354, 1.271] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.9 [16.7, 19.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.245 [0.123, 0.493] g/100g ; Selenium = 31.1 [14.3, 71.7] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 71.6 [18.0, 258.3] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.29 [0.82, 2.04] mg/100g (wet weight);