Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; benthopelagic; depth range 10 - 75 m (Ref. 27000), usually 20 - 50 m (Ref. 81287). Tropical; 0°C - ; 30°N - 17°S, 27°W - 13°E
Eastern Atlantic: West African coast, from Senegal to Angola (Ref. 7350, 81287). Also reported from the Canary Islands, Cape Verde (Ref. 7350) and Mauritania (Ref. 5377).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 45.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 1380); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3609); max. published weight: 750.00 g (Ref. 4883)
Morphology | Morphometrics
(total): 8 - 9;
soft rays: 20 - 21. Diagnosis: body deep and strongly compressed, its anterior profile very steep up to dorsal-fin origin, and strongly compressed; head small; snout short; mouth small, terminal, strongly protrusible, with fleshy lips; teeth slender and pointed, set in bands in upper jaw; roof of mouth toothless; dorsal fin deeply notched; 1st dorsal fin spine small, forward-pointing and visible only in young individuals; pectorals falcate, very long, their tips almost reaching to caudal-fin base; hind margin of caudal fin slightly rounded; pelvic fins thoracic; scales finely ctenoid, covering body, bases of dorsal and anal fins and head, except snout and preopercle; preopercular margin denticulate; lateral line strongly arched (Ref. 81287).
Coloration: silvery grey, darker on back, almost white on belly; sides with a series of 8 brown, more or less faded vertical bars, always more distinct in young individuals (Ref. 81287).
Neritic species (Ref. 7350). Essentially marine, often living in groups (Ref. 81287) over sandy and muddy bottoms (Ref. 2683), between 20 and 50 m depth, and entering coastal lagoons where sexual maturation begins (Ref. 81287). Feeds of fish eggs, benthic invertebrates and detritus (Ref. 28587).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Desoutter, M., 1990. Ephippidae. p. 834-836. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 7350)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 19.2 - 28, mean 26.1 °C (based on 132 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01413 (0.00737 - 0.02705), b=2.98 (2.81 - 3.15), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.41 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.13-0.25).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (56 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 102 [55, 204] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.751 [0.454, 1.342] mg/100g ; Protein = 16.6 [15.5, 17.7] % ; Omega3 = 0.385 [0.180, 0.840] g/100g ; Selenium = 44.2 [19.5, 108.2] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 34.5 [10.2, 118.0] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.48 [0.92, 2.29] mg/100g (wet weight);