Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathypelagic; depth range 0 - 2000 m (Ref. 9927), usually 500 - 700 m (Ref. 6744). Deep-water; 65°N - 40°S
Circumglobal: In tropical to temperate waters. Eastern Atlantic: Iceland and British Isles to South Africa including Canary Islands and Ascension Island (Ref. 6744). Northwest Atlantic: Canada (Ref. 5951). Not recorded from the Mediterranean (Ref. 6744).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 27.6 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5951); common length : 9.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6536)
Juveniles are found from near surface to about 250 m to more than 1,000 m (Ref. 6536). Largest adults may be benthopelagic (Ref. 9851). Adults are plankton-eaters like the other members of the family (Ref. 6744). Oviparous, with planktonic larvae (Ref. 36622).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Paxton, J.R., D.F. Hoese, G.R. Allen and J.E. Hanley, 1989. Pisces. Petromyzontidae to Carangidae. Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Vol. 7. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 665 p. (Ref. 7300)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of potential interest
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 3.3 - 12.2, mean 8.1 °C (based on 510 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01698 (0.00652 - 0.04421), b=3.01 (2.78 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.45 se; based on food items.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (18 of 100) .