Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Siluriformes
(Catfishes) > Claroteidae
(Claroteid catfishes) > Claroteinae
Etymology: Clarotes: Greek, klarotes, a term for slaves, people with bent necks; in reference to the morphology of the head.
More on author: Rüppell.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; demersal; anadromous (Ref. 51243). Tropical; 20°C - 26°C (Ref. 2059); 17°N - 3°N
Africa: present in all Nilo-Sudanese basins, including Chad, Benue, Niger, Senegal, and Volta (Ref. 57126). Also in East Africa and Nile basin (Ref. 3236, 28714).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 28 - ? cm
Max length : 80.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4967); max. published weight: 10.0 kg (Ref. 3799)
spines: 0. Diagnosis: adipose fin rayed in adults, 1st ray forming a spine (not visible in juveniles); adipose-fin rays becoming visible at sizes of 90-100 mm SL, and the spine at 200 mm; dentition very well developed: premaxillary tooth plate broad (38-45% of head length), palatine dentition consisting of an elongate vomerine plate and of a dermo-palatine plate in young individuals (60-70 mm SL); palatine tooth plates narrow and long with much weaker dentition; nasal barbel long, reaching at least to anterior part of orbit; maxillary barbel very long, exceeding at least the anterior part of dorsal fin and often reaching to adipose fin; caudal-fin lobes marked by a dark band; cranial bones well developed; length of occipital process usually less than 1.4 times its width (Ref. 57126).
Inhabits rivers (Ref 4967). Feeds on crustaceans, insects, mollusks and fish (Ref. 28714).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Risch, L.M., 2003. Claroteidae. p. 60-96 In C. Lévêque, D. Paugy and G.G. Teugels (eds.) Faune des poissons d'eaux douce et saumâtres de l'Afrique de l'Ouest, Tome 2. Coll. Faune et Flore tropicales 40. Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgique, Museum National d'Histoire Naturalle, Paris, France and Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Paris, France. 815 p. (Ref. 57126)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01413 (0.00748 - 0.02669), b=3.02 (2.85 - 3.19), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.43 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (59 of 100).