Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Beloniformes
(Needle fishes) > Exocoetidae
Etymology: Cheilopogon: Greek, cheilos = lip + Greek, pogon = barbed, beard (Ref. 45335). More on author: Valenciennes.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; pelagic-neritic; oceanodromous; depth range 0 - 20 m. Subtropical; 51°N - 10°S, 98°W - 7°E
Western Atlantic: Gulf Stream waters off Massachusetts, USA to southern Brazil. Caribbean including Antilles (Ref. 26938). Eastern Atlantic: Senegal to Liberia (Ref. 4498). Northwest Atlantic: Canada (Ref. 5951). Reported from Sao Tome Island (Ref. 34088).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 32.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217)
Generally found in surface waters near the coast (Ref. 5217). Capable of leaping out of the water and gliding for long distances above the surface (Ref. 3613).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Parin, N.V. and R.H. Gibbs Jr., 1990. Exocoetidae. p. 583-591. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 4498)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 20.2 - 28, mean 26.2 °C (based on 456 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00427 (0.00164 - 0.01111), b=3.12 (2.89 - 3.35), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (18 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 205 [81, 504] mg/100g ; Iron = 2.56 [1.39, 4.16] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.6 [16.7, 20.5] % ; Omega3 = 0.409 [0.189, 1.010] g/100g ; Selenium = 27.9 [13.4, 56.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 12.4 [3.7, 48.2] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.01 [0.68, 1.52] mg/100g (wet weight);