Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Tetraodontiformes
(Puffers and filefishes) > Balistidae
Etymology: Canthidermis: Greek, kanthos = the outer or inner corner of the eye, where the lids meet, 1646 + Greek, derma = skin (Ref. 45335). More on author: Bloch.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 110 m (Ref. 9710). Subtropical; 46°N - 18°S
Circumglobal. But not in Mediterranean. Western Pacific: north to Hokkaido, Japan and east to French Polynesia. Eastern Pacific: Puerto Vallarta, Mexico to Huacho, Peru, and including the Galapagos Islands (Ref. 9276). Western Atlantic: North Carolina, USA and Bermuda to South America (Ref. 7251). Eastern Atlantic: Cape Verde and west coast of Africa (Ref. 7348). Western Indian Ocean: South Africa (Ref. 4420) and Reunion (Ref. 53568).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9276); common length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55763)
Found in shallow coastal and offshore waters (Ref. 9276, 11230). Epipelagic nearly all throughout life, often associated with drifting objects (Ref. 1602, 44187). May occur on deep rocky slopes (Ref. 7251). Feeds on zooplanktons (Ref. 89972). Appear to school in large numbers based on catches from set nets (Ref. 637). Oviparous (Ref. 205). Marketed fresh (Ref. 9770).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Distinct pairing (Ref. 205).
Myers, R.F., 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 30911)
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 23 - 29, mean 27.7 °C (based on 2250 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02570 (0.01243 - 0.05316), b=2.94 (2.76 - 3.12), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.45 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (41 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 26.9 [10.6, 63.6] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.764 [0.415, 1.547] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.4 [17.4, 21.4] % ; Omega3 = 0.178 [0.091, 0.356] g/100g ; Selenium = 17.3 [8.2, 38.8] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 31.1 [8.0, 115.4] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.763 [0.465, 1.253] mg/100g (wet weight);