Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 1 - 90 m (Ref. 5217), usually 10 - 50 m (Ref. 5217). Tropical; 41°N - 33°S, 85°W - 34°W
Western Atlantic: New York, USA and northeastern Gulf of Mexico to Brazil. There are no records from any Antillean location (Ref. 51183).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251); common length : 18.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217)
Occurs in bays, lagoons, and shallow coastal waters. Found on soft bottoms of continental shelf to a depth of about 90 m, more common between 10-50 m (Ref. 5217). Feeds on crustaceans, polychaetes and mollusks (Ref. 36453).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 21.2 - 28, mean 25.4 (based on 360 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00430 - 0.02326), b=3.01 (2.82 - 3.20), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.30 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (35 of 100) .