Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; pelagic-oceanic; depth range 60 - 778 m (Ref. 280). Deep-water
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 9.2 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 96467)
An oceanic, mesopelagic fish with some size stratification with respect to depth: small specimens (<2.3 cm SL) were taken in nets as shallow as 60 m, while specimens >4.0 cm SL have only been taken in trawls fished to 490 m and deeper. During daytime minimal catch data indicate that the species is not found in the upper 500 m, but at night, small specimens (< ca. 2.5 cm SL) may migrate into the upper 120 m. Mature and expended females (Stages V and VI) have been caught in January and April, suggesting late summer spawning period (Ref. 96467).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Paxton, J.R., D.F. Hoese, G.R. Allen and J.E. Hanley, 1989. Pisces. Petromyzontidae to Carangidae. Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Vol. 7. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 665 p. (Ref. 7300)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 9.7 - 21.3, mean 13.8 °C (based on 370 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5078 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00244 - 0.04107), b=3.04 (2.81 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.1 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (34 of 100) .