Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic. Tropical
Africa: widely distributed from the Cross River up to the Chiloango basin, including the Mungo, Wouri, Sanaga, Nyong, Kribi, Ntem, Ogowé and Nyanga; also known from the Dja (middle Congo River basin) and from Tibesti (Chad)(Ref. 81639).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 43.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2801)
soft rays: 8 - 9. Diagnosis: mouth inferior (Ref. 81639). Lips normally well developed, lower lip continuous (Ref. 81282, 81639). Geographical variations in mouth form: soft or “rubbery” versus keratinised (Ref. 2940, 81282). Two pairs of well-developed barbels; barbels long, posterior barbel reaching to or beyond posterior margin of eye (Ref. 81639). Scale formula 4.5/26-30/4.5 (Ref. 2940, 81282) or 4.5-5.5/26-33/3.5-4.5/2-3 (Ref. 81639). 2-3 (Ref. 81639) or 3 (Ref. 2940, 81282) scales between lateral line and pelvic-fin base. 12 scales around caudal peduncle (Ref. 2940, 81282, 81639). 8-9 (Ref. 2940, 81282) or 8-10 (Ref. 81639) dorsal fin branched rays. Last simple dorsal ray ossified and as long as or shorter than head in specimens over 150 mm SL (Ref. 2940, 81282) or measuring 0.67x HL (Ref. 81639).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Lévêque, C. and J. Daget, 1984. Cyprinidae. p. 217-342. In J. Daget, J.-P. Gosse and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde (eds.) Check-list of the freshwater fishes of Africa (CLOFFA). ORSTOM, Paris and MRAC, Tervuren. Vol. 1. (Ref. 2801)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01202 (0.00574 - 0.02520), b=2.96 (2.79 - 3.13), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.5 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (43 of 100) .