Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Stomiiformes
(Lightfishes and dragonfishes) > Stomiidae
(Barbeled dragonfishes) > Astronesthinae
Etymology: Astronesthes: Greek, astra = ray + Greek, esthes, -es = suit, something used to wrap (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathypelagic; depth range 50 - 2230 m (Ref. 58302). Deep-water; 25°N - 37°S, 15°E - 154°W
Indo-Pacific: Its range seems to represent the equatorial distributional pattern; it expands southwards in the western parts of the Pacific (including the Philippine Sea, Ref. 41299), and Indian oceans; absent in the eastern part. Atlantic Ocean: Present in a small portion near southern Africa.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 20.8 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 27676)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 12 - 16;
Vertebrae: 43 - 46. Last photophore of VAL series behind origin of anal and last photophore of VAV series. Aggregation of luminous tissue on head, when fully developed fish > 10 cm SL, forming transverse bar across gill cover; longitudinally oriented aggregations of luminous tubercle-like spots on body behind head and above pelvic fins. In immature fish < 6 cm SL, chin barbel fully developed, longer than head, its swollen tip forming elongate thickened rod with two flattened distal lobes (Ref. 27676).
Epi- and mesopelagic, with fishing depths to 4000 m (Ref. 58302). Found on the continental slope (Ref. 75154).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Parin, N.V. and O.D. Borodulina, 1996. Revision of the Astronesthes indicus species group (Astronesthidae), with descriptions of five new species. J. Ichthyol. 36(8):551-565. (Ref. 27676)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 4.7 - 12.4, mean 7.4 (based on 498 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00380 (0.00147 - 0.00985), b=3.10 (2.87 - 3.33), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.7 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (31 of 100) .