Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 225 - 385 m (Ref. 11230), usually - m (Ref. ). Temperate; 0°C -
Northwest Pacific: southern Japan and Taiwan (Ref. 12711).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 10 - 13. Body elongate and cylindrical. Base of anal fin not longer than base of dorsal fin. Snout longer than eye diameter. Mouth small, the upper jaw protruding. No teeth present on jaws.
Found in the upper bathyal, 225-385 m on sandy mud bottom (Ref. 11230).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno and T. Yoshino, 1984. The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Vol. 1. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan. 437 p. (text). (Ref. 559)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 1.7 - 17.9, mean 12.9 °C (based on 19 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00363 (0.00163 - 0.00807), b=3.17 (2.98 - 3.36), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (39 of 100) .