Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; benthopelagic; depth range 1 - 100 m (Ref. 89467), usually 20 - 25 m (Ref. 89467). Tropical
Indo-West and Central Pacific: probably wide ranging in the tropical and subtropical zones.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 153 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 84291); max. published weight: 200.0 kg (Ref. 89467)
Morphology | Morphometrics
This large species is distinguished by the following characters: dorsal surfaces with a dark greenish grey base coloration, variably white spotted, rarely ocellated; different NADH2 gene structure; relatively long tail with mean total length 281% DW, mean anterior cloaca to tail tip 230.2% DW; stinging spines relatively long with mean length of first spine 9.7%DW; teeth plates are in a single row, those in the lower jaw chevron-shaped; pectoral fin radials about 102-116, excluding proterygial radials anterior of eyes; 99-101 total vertebral centra, including synarcual (Ref. 84291).
Found in coastal waters (Ref. 45255), including estuarine habitats (Ref. 89467). Feeds on gastropod, bivalve molluscs, crustraceans, worms, octopuses and fishes (Ref. 89467). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449).
White, W.T., P.R. Last, G.J.P. Naylor, K. Jensen and J.N. Caira, 2010. Clarification of Aetobatus ocellatus (Kuhl, 1823) as a valid species, and a comparison with Aetobatus narinari (Euphrasen, 1790) (Rajiformes: Myliobatidae). pp. 141-164. In P.R. Last, W.T. White and J.J. Pogonoski (eds). Descriptions of new sharks and rays from Borneo. CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research Paper no. 32. (Ref. 84291)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.8 - 29, mean 28 (based on 194 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00244 - 0.04107), b=3.04 (2.81 - 3.27), in cm Total Length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.5 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (68 of 100) .