Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; pH range: 6.5 - 7.2; non-migratory. Tropical; 20°C - 26°C (Ref. 2059); 25°S - 29°S
Africa: small rivers, brooks and shallow parts of larger bodies of water, estuaries and lagoons in the warm coastal plains of Natal, South Africa, from the Pongola River southward to the Umlalazi River (Ref. 47311). Also in Transvaal, South Africa (Ref. 27139). Reports from the Okavango swamps in Botswana and the Cuanza and Cuilo in Angola probably refer to other species (Ref. 47311).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 5.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 31267); 5.5 cm TL (female); common length : 3.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 27139)
Occurs in inshore vegetated areas of lakes and well-vegetated streams. Feeds on aquatic insects, such as mosquito larvae and algae. Serial spawner, lays eggs on vegetation. Potential mosquito control agent (Ref. 7248). Not a seasonal killifish. Is difficult to maintain in aquarium (Ref. 27139).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Huber, J.H., 1996. Killi-Data 1996. Updated checklist of taxonomic names, collecting localities and bibliographic references of oviparous Cyprinodont fishes (Atherinomorpha, Pisces). Société Française d'Ichtyologie, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France, 399 p. (Ref. 27139)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 119314)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: ; aquarium: commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00437 (0.00162 - 0.01173), b=3.14 (2.91 - 3.37), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 2.6 ±0.26 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (17 of 100) .