Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Siluriformes
(Catfish) > Mochokidae
(Squeakers or upside-down catfishes)
Etymology: Synodontis: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; pH range: 6.0 - 7.8; dH range: 10 - 25. Tropical; 21°C - 24°C (Ref. 2060)
Africa: Niger delta (Ref. 57223), lower Niger and Cross River in Nigeria (Ref. 57223, 81251).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 10.5 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 57223)
Morphology | Morphometrics
spines: 0. Diagnosis: gill slits not extending ventrally beyond pectoral-fin insertions (Ref. 57223). Post-orbital length at least 60% of snout length (Ref. 57223, 81251). Interorbital distance at most 86.6% of snout length; entire margin of opercle smooth (Ref. 81251). Maxillary barbels longer than head, unbranched, without tubercles and bordered by a short but distinct black basal membrane; outer mandibular barbels with few short, simple and rather thin ramifications, branches of inner mandibular barbels also simple, short and few, but thicker and sometimes tuberculate (Ref. 57223, 81251). Mandibular teeth moderately developed (Ref. 57223), movable (Ref. 81251), numbering 20-27 (20 in the holotype)(Ref. 57223, 81251). Pectoral spines strongly serrated, with twice as many along anterior edge as posterior edge (Ref. 81251), denticulations finer and more dense on outer than on inner margin (Ref. 57223). Dorsal-fin spine smooth anteriorly (Ref. 57223, 81251), except for some apical denticles (Ref. 57223), few distal serrations on posterior edge (Ref. 81251). Humeral process about twice as long as deep, granulose, pointed and distinctly keeled ventrally (Ref. 57223, 81251). Adipose fin moderately developed and distinctly separated from rayed dorsal fin (Ref. 57223). Adipose-fin base long (Ref. 57223), its length 4.2-11.3 times the distance between rayed dorsal- and adipose fin and 2.5 to 3.5 times longer than deep (Ref. 81251). Dorsal part of body and adipose spotted (Ref. 57223, 81251). Caudal fin spotted and without single dark patch at base of each fin lobe (Ref. 81251).
Maximum TL was recorded at 13.8 cm (Ref. 57223). Oviparous (Ref. 205).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous (Ref. 205). Distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205).
Paugy, D. and T.R. Roberts, 2003. Mochokidae. p. 195-268 In C. Lévêque, D. Paugy and G.G. Teugels (eds.) Faune des poissons d'eaux douce et saumâtres de l'Afrique de l'Ouest, Tome 2. Coll. Faune et Flore tropicales 40. Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgique, Museum National d'Histoire Naturalle, Paris, France and Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Paris, France. 815 p. (Ref. 57223)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00617 (0.00259 - 0.01467), b=3.09 (2.88 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.9 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Fec = 523-1,205).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (13 of 100) .