Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Siluriformes
(Catfish) > Mochokidae
(Squeakers or upside-down catfishes)
Etymology: Synodontis: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic. Tropical; 17°N - 4°N
Africa: upper Niger and inner Niger delta in Mali (Ref. 57223).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 47.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 57223)
Morphology | Morphometrics
spines: 0. Diagnosis: gill slits not extending ventrally beyond pectoral-fin insertions; snout rounded, at most 65% of head length; post-orbital length at most 60% of snout length; maxillary barbels not fringed or very slightly fringed at base, shorter than head, unbranched and without tubercles or membranes (although a tiny rudiment may occasionally be discernible at their bases); outer mandibular barbels with few simple and rather long ramifications; branches of inner mandibular barbels short, subdivided and more or less tuberculate; mandibular teeth numbering 31-47 (40 in the neotype); dorsal-fin spine short and smooth anteriorly; denticulation of pectoral-fin spines finer on outer than on inner margin; humeral process narrow, triangular, rather pointed and not keeled ventrally; adipose fin rather long and distinctly separated from rayed dorsal fin, its height variable with specimens; head very broad, snout rounded and eyes small, in dorsal position (Ref. 57223).
Coloration: preserved specimens dark brown; according to Daget (1954), colour in life «olivaceous yellow on back and sides, lighter on belly»; body and adipose fin covered with large black spots, which become smaller on belly and on other fins (Ref. 57223).
Maximum TL was recorded at 60.0 cm (Ref. 57223). Oviparous (Ref. 205).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous (Ref. 205). Distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205).
Paugy, D. and T.R. Roberts, 2003. Mochokidae. p. 195-268 In C. Lévêque, D. Paugy and G.G. Teugels (eds.) Faune des poissons d'eaux douce et saumâtres de l'Afrique de l'Ouest, Tome 2. Coll. Faune et Flore tropicales 40. Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgique, Museum National d'Histoire Naturalle, Paris, France and Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Paris, France. 815 p. (Ref. 57223)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00617 (0.00260 - 0.01460), b=3.09 (2.88 - 3.30), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 2.8 ±0.3 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (46 of 100) .