Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Aulopiformes
(Grinners) > Ipnopidae
(Deep-sea tripod fishes) > Ipnopinae
Etymology: Bathypterois: Greek, bathys = deep + Greek, pterois = with wings (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 800 - 2657 m (Ref. 5320), usually 1200 - 2000 m (Ref. 6688). Deep-water; 40°N - 35°S, 98°W - 30°E
Eastern Atlantic: Off Sierra Leone and Liberia and off South Africa (as Bathypterois ater). Western Atlantic: at bathyal depths between latitude 40°N-5°N including Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea, and off southern Brazil.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 18.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3590); common length : 16.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3590)
Common on mid and lower continental slope. Rests on the bottom with the use of elongated, stiffened outer pelvic and lower caudal fin rays (tripod). Sensory pectoral fins are thrown forward in front of its head, facing the current. Feeds on benthopelagic plankton. Synchronously hermaphroditic (Ref. 6688). Spawning is seasonal with peak during fall in the Bahamas (Ref. 3590).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Merrett, N.R., 1990. Chlorophthalmidae. p. 351-360. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 3590)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 3.3 - 4.6, mean 4.2 °C (based on 421 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00490 (0.00199 - 0.01208), b=3.03 (2.80 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.45 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (12 of 100) .