Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range ? - 100 m (Ref. 9772). Tropical
Indo-West Pacific: Taiwan to southern China, off Sarawak, eastern tip of the Malay Peninsula and southern Java.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 27.8 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 108763); common length : 18.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9772)
Found in coastal waters. Feeds on small invertebrates and fishes (Ref. 2113).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno and T. Yoshino, 1984. The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Vol. 1. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan. 437 p. (text). (Ref. 559)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: highly commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 23.4 - 29.1, mean 28.2 (based on 1566 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01288 (0.00852 - 0.01949), b=3.11 (2.99 - 3.23), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.64 se; Based on food items.
Generation time: 2.6 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (26 of 100) .