Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Tetraodontiformes
(Puffers and filefishes) > Ostraciidae
Etymology: Lactoria: Latin, concerned with milk (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 5 - 132 m (Ref. 89467), usually 6 - 30 m (Ref. 9710). Tropical; 32°N - 32°S
Indo-West Pacific: East Africa to the Hawaiian and Rapa Islands, north to southern Japan, south to Lord Howe Island. Southeast Atlantic: sometimes reaching the southeast coast of South Africa (Ref. 3141).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 23.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3141)
Inhabit clear outer lagoon and seaward reefs (Ref. 1602). Benthopelagic over rubble and sand at 5-132 m (Ref. 58302). Solitary (Ref. 90102). Males are highly territorial (Ref. 9710). Poisonous in some parts of the tropics (Ref. 7364).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Myers, R.F., 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest; aquarium: commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.3 - 28.8, mean 27.5 (based on 776 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.03548 (0.01708 - 0.07371), b=2.81 (2.63 - 2.99), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.0 ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Fec assumed to be > 10,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (12 of 100) .