Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Cichliformes
(Cichlids, convict blennies) > Cichlidae
(Cichlids) > Pseudocrenilabrinae
Etymology: Pseudocrenilabrus: Greek, pseudes = false + Latin, crenulatus = cut + Latin, labrum = lip (Ref. 45335). More on author: Weber.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; pH range: 7.0 - ? ; dH range: 12 - ?. Tropical; 22°C - 25°C (Ref. 2059); 5°S - 35°S
Africa: from the Orange River system and southern Natal northwards throughout southern Africa, extending to southern Congo basin tributaries (Ref. 7248) and lagoons and rivers associated with Lake Malawi, but not the lake itself (Ref. 55954). Also in Lake Rukwa (Ref. 27292). Three subspecies are recognized: Pseudocrenilabrus philander dispersus, Pseudocrenilabrus philander luebberti and Pseudocrenilabrus philander philander.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 13.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5682); max. reported age: 5 years (Ref. 7248)
soft rays: 8 - 10. Pectoral fin short and rounded. Caudal fin strongly rounded.
Found in various habitats, from flowing waters to lakes and isolated sinkholes, e.g., Lake Otjikoto, Namibia (see Ref. 27829); usually prefers vegetated zones. Feeds on insects, shrimps and even small fish. Breeds from early spring to late summer; males defend a territory, construct a simple cleared nest and attract ripe females. Eggs are laid in the nest, fertilized and collected by the female. The females withdraws to a nursery to brood the eggs until juvenile stage (Ref. 7248). Ovophilic, agamous maternal mouthbrooder; no pair-bonding takes place (Ref. 52307).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Female lays batches of eggs on a substratum which the male begins to inseminate. Female collects the eggs almost immediately after laying a batch and incubates eggs in her mouth for 12-14 days at 26°C, releasing the young after which. Parent guards the young for 5-7 days, keeping them into her mouth when approached by predators or divers.
Skelton, P.H., 1991. Pseudocrenilabrus. p. 394-398. In J. Daget, J.-P. Gosse, G.G. Teugels and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde (eds.) Check-list of the freshwater fishes of Africa (CLOFFA). ISNB, Brussels; MRAC, Tervuren; and ORSTOM, Paris. Vol. 4. (Ref. 5682)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01288 (0.00770 - 0.02155), b=2.96 (2.82 - 3.10), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.60 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tmax=4.5).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (15 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 335 [179, 678] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.81 [1.11, 3.46] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.3 [16.8, 19.7] % ; Omega3 = 0.414 [0.149, 1.188] g/100g ; Selenium = 45.5 [19.4, 104.4] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 59.9 [17.1, 167.0] μg/100g ; Zinc = 2.65 [1.76, 4.75] mg/100g (wet weight);