Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Mullidae
Etymology: Upeneus: Greek, ypene, -es = upper lip (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 13 m (Ref. 95469). Tropical
Western Indian Ocean: Persian Gulf.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 17.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 83903)
Morphology | Morphometrics
(total): 9. This species is distinguished by the following characters: D VIII + 9; pectoral fins 13-14; gill rakers 4-7 + 15-18 = 20-24; lateral line scales 29-31; body depth at first dorsal fin origin 22-26% SL and at anus 19-22% SL; caudal-peduncle depth 9.6-11% SL, width 2.2-4.1% SL; maximum head depth 19-23% SL; head depth through eye 15-19% SL; head length 29-33%SL; postorbital length 12-13% SL; orbit length 5.5-8.1% SL; upper jaw length 11-14% SL; barbel length 16-22% SL; caudal-peduncle length 20-25% SL; caudal-fin length 24-28% SL; anal-fin height 15-17% SL; pelvic-fin length 18-22% SL; pectoral-fin length 18-22% SL, width 3.6-5.4% SL; first dorsal-fin height 18-22% SL; second dorsal-fin height 16-18% SL; postorbital length 1.2-1.4 times in anal-fin height; all fins possess dark brown or black stripes, bars or blotches; 6-10 oblique bars on caudal fin in adults (6 or less in juveniles > 7 cm SL), 3-5 brown, dark brown or black bars on upper caudal-fin lobe, 3-4 brown, dark brown or black bars on lower lobe; a dark-brown or black mid-lateral body stripe from tip of snout to caudal-fin base; body and head ground colour white or
beige, slightly darker above lateral line, with irregular dark brown or black spots, dots and blotches; barbels are yellow or pale brown; most of body and fin pigmentation retained on preserved fish (Ref. 95469).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Uiblein, F. and P.C. Heemstra, 2010. A taxonomic review of the Western Indian Ocean goatfishes of the genus Upeneus (Family Mullidae), with descriptions of four new species. Smithiana 11:35-71. (Ref. 83903)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 119314)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.7 - 28.4, mean 26.8 (based on 110 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00955 (0.00456 - 0.02002), b=3.08 (2.91 - 3.25), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.4 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (24 of 100) .