Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes/Serranoidei
(Groupers) > Serranidae
(Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Epinephelus: Greek, epinephelos = cloudy (Ref. 45335). More on author: Bleeker.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; brackish; demersal; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 20°N - 16°S, 99°E - 164°E (Ref. 5222)
Asia and Oceania: Andaman Is., Indonesia, Philippines, Papua New Guinea, New Ireland, Australia and the Solomon Islands.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 48.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 89707)
soft rays: 8. Distinguished by the following characteristics: dark brown to nearly blackish color; fins with small white to yellowish-white dots; weakly ctenoid scales on body except cycloid anteriorly above lateral line, on thorax and abdomen; body with auxiliary scales; greatest depth of body 2.6-3.0 in SL; rounded caudal fin; pelvic fins, 1.9-2.2 in head length (Ref. 90102); head length 2.3-2.7 times in SL; flat interorbital area; short snout, length subequal to eye diameter; preorbital depth less than greatest width of upper lip; rounded preopercle, finely serrate, serrae at angle slightly enlarged; upper edge of operculum mostly enlarged; funnel-shaped anterior nostrils, rear margin expanded as a flap reaching posterior nostril; posterior nostril diameter 2-4 times larger than anterior nostril diameter; maxilla reaches past vertical at rear edge of eye, lower edge with rounded step at front of widest part; 2-3 rows of small subequal teeth on midlateral part of lower jaw; presence of 2 short stout canines at front of both jaws; pyloric caeca 8 (Ref. 89707).
Found in estuaries (Ref. 75154). Usual habitat seems to be mangrove areas (Ref. 5222). Benthic (Ref. 75154). Forms large aggregations in shallow waters of river mouths and brackish mangrove regions throughout the year, prior to new moon (Ref. 89707).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01148 (0.00558 - 0.02364), b=3.04 (2.87 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (39 of 100) .