Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 15 m (Ref. 5222). Tropical; 27°N - 30°S, 32°E - 63°E (Ref. 5222)
Western Indian Ocean: Gulf of Oman and south coast of Arabian Peninsula, Aldabra, Comoros, Madagascar, and coast of Africa from Kenya to Durban, South Africa.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 85.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5213); max. published weight: 10.5 kg (Ref. 5222)
soft rays: 9 - 10. Distinguished by the following characteristics: body depth, 2.4-2.6 times in SL; eye diameter much less than snout length, 7.2-8.1 in HL; preopercle serrate, serrae covered by skin; opercular spines not readily visible; slightly concave or straight dorsal head profile; caudal fin rounded or truncate with rounded corners; smooth scales, mostly covered by skin and auxiliary scales (Ref. 089707).
A rare species seen on shallow waters of sheltered, turbid coastal rocky or coral reefs (Ref. 9710). Morgans (1982, Ref. 6448) reports shoaling behavior in small groups (8 or fewer individuals). Examination of stomach contents reveal fish remains.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 26.1 - 28.8, mean 27.3 °C (based on 419 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01148 (0.00555 - 0.02374), b=3.04 (2.87 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.67 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (54 of 100).