Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes/Serranoidei
(Groupers) > Serranidae
(Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Cephalopholis: Greek, kephale = head + Greek, pholis = scale (Ref. 45335). More on author: Forster.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 60 m (Ref. 5222), usually 3 - 15 m (Ref. 9710). Tropical; 34°N - 30°S, 33°E - 131°W (Ref. 5222)
Pacific Ocean: eastward to French Polynesia and the Pitcairn Islands, and to Christmas Isalnd in the Indian Ocean
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 17 - ? cm
Max length : 28.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5222)
soft rays: 8 - 9. This species is distinguished by the following characteristics: greatest body depth 2.7-3.1 in standard length; body scales ctenoid except cycloid scales ventrally on abdomen; rounded caudal fin; pelvic fins usually not reaching the anus, 1.8-2.2 in head length Colour of body reddish brown anteriorly, dark brown posteriorly; caudal fin with 2 white to bluish white bands that converge posteriorly (Ref. 90102).
Adults inhabit clear, shallow waters of outer reef areas, in lagoons, back-reef areas, and on the reef-top. As solitary individuals (Ref. 90102), they prefer healthy coral reef in shallow areas, and are therefore greatly affected by reef degradation (Ref. 89707). They feed on small fishes (68%) and crustaceans. Because of its small size, the darkfin hind is not of much interest as a food fish (except perhaps to subsistence fisheries), but it does well in an aquarium and may find a market as an aquarium fish. They are caught with hook-and-line, gill nets, and in traps (Ref. 39231).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Protogyny is unconfirmed for this species (Ref. 103751).
Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries; aquarium: potential
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25.2 - 29.3, mean 28.4 °C (based on 3224 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01230 (0.00759 - 0.01994), b=3.04 (2.91 - 3.17), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.69 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 0.8 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (14 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 84.7 [43.9, 166.2] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.957 [0.468, 1.812] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.7 [16.7, 20.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.179 [0.100, 0.312] g/100g ; Selenium = 42.9 [21.8, 80.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 76.1 [26.4, 247.6] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.919 [0.596, 1.622] mg/100g (wet weight);