Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes/Serranoidei
(Groupers) > Serranidae
(Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Cephalopholis: Greek, kephale = head + Greek, pholis = scale (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Bleeker.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 0 - 52 m (Ref. 90102), usually 0 - 30 m (Ref. 89707). Tropical; 19°N - 24°S, 97°E - 168°E (Ref. 5222)
Western Pacific: including the Andaman Sea, Gulf of Thailand, Indonesia, Philippines, Papua New Guinea, Great Barrier Reef, Solomon Islands, and New Caledonia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 48635)
Adults inhabit shallow waters, usually on silty reefs, midshelf lagoons and backreef areas; feeds on fishes and crustaceans (Ref. 089707). Secretive in corals to about 20 m depth. Juveniles are found under corals with rubble substrate (Ref. 48635).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 26.6 - 29.1, mean 28.3 °C (based on 1164 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01660 (0.00957 - 0.02878), b=3.11 (2.97 - 3.25), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.7 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (15 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 67.1 [38.2, 117.3] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.724 [0.393, 1.248] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.4 [16.4, 20.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.185 [0.111, 0.300] g/100g ; Selenium = 34.6 [19.3, 60.4] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 189 [68, 570] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.914 [0.640, 1.539] mg/100g (wet weight);