Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 40 m (Ref. 90102). Tropical
Indo-West Pacific: India to China, Philippines, Papua New Guinea and Australia. Reported from Vanuatu (Ref. 13300).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4690)
(total): 13 - 14;
soft rays: 5. A drab species, usually brownish grey to reddish brown with a pattern of fine lines across the caudal fin. Eyes well elevated compared to the reef stonefish S. verrucosa (Ref. 48635).
Inhabits coastal reefs and estuaries (Ref. 9710). Makes a shallow depression by scooping up sand or mud with its pectoral fins until it is piled up around the sides of its body. Lies motionless on sandy bottom areas. Comes out at night and often moves on top of reefs (Ref. 48635). In Guinness Book of Records as most venomous fish (Ref. 6472). Solitary in coral rubble and rocks, extremely difficult to detect (Ref 90102).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Randall, J.E., G.R. Allen and R.C. Steene, 1990. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii. 506 p. (Ref. 2334)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Aquarium: public aquariums
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.4 - 29, mean 27.9 °C (based on 874 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01622 (0.00604 - 0.04358), b=3.06 (2.83 - 3.29), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.3 ±0.7 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (63 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 40.1 [17.4, 87.5] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.671 [0.373, 1.372] mg/100g ; Protein = 16.8 [15.1, 18.4] % ; Omega3 = 0.397 [0.150, 1.111] g/100g ; Selenium = 36.5 [15.5, 98.9] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 193 [52, 739] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.2 [0.7, 2.0] mg/100g (wet weight);