Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Characiformes
(Characins) > Characidae
(Characins) > Incertae sedis
Etymology: Hemigrammus: Greek, hemi = half + Greek, gramma = letter, signal (Ref. 45335); parana: Named for the type locality river, the rio Paraná, originating after the confluence of the rio Grande and the rio Paranaíba, where this species occurs.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; depth range 0 - 1 m (Ref. 74938). Tropical
South America: Brazil in the area of influence of the Ilha Solteira reservoir, upper Paraná system, throughout margins of rio Grande, rio Paraná, rio Paranaíba and rio São Jose dos Dourados.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 3.1 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 74938)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 21 - 23. Distinguished from all other species of Hemigrammus, except Hemigrammus levis, by lacking a humeral spot and the presence of a conspicuous black spot, restricted to caudal fin, roughly triangular or rectangular, extending from base to tip of middle caudal-fin rays (its greatest depth at base of caudal-fin rays). Can be differentiated from Hemigrammus levis by the following characters: anal fin with 18-23 (mode 21) unbranched rays (vs. 16-18); largest tooth of the inner row of premaxilla and dentary with 5 cusps (vs. 7-9); anterior portion of longitudinal band as a broad uninterrupted pigmented area (vs. anterior portion of longitudinal band with a small round concentration of chromatophores at humeral region, surrounded by unpigmented areas anterior and posteriorly); distance of snout to anal-fin origin 58.6-65.9% SL, mean 62.0% (vs. 63.7-73.9% SL, mean 68.8%); anal base length 25.1-32.5% SL, mean 29.2% (19.3-24.7% SL, mean 22.0%), upper jaw length 39.6-48.3% HL (vs. 34.3-39.5% HL) (Ref. 74938).
This fish is abundant in backwater margins from 0.3 to 1.3 m depth where it occurs in association with Poaceae and macrophytes (Ceratophyllum sp., Egeria densa, Eichornia spp., Ludwigia sedorde and Salvinia species. Stomach contents of two specimens consist of Spirogyra species, Cladocera, sediments (sand) and unidentifiable organic matter (Ref. 74938).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Marinho, M.M.F., F.R. Carvalho, F. Langeani and F.L. Tatsumi, 2008. A new Hemigrammus Gill from upper rio Paraná system, Southeastern Brazil (Characiformes: Characidae). Zootaxa 1724:52-60. (Ref. 74938)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 119314)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00724 (0.00305 - 0.01723), b=3.17 (2.97 - 3.37), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.0 ±0.4 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .