Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Squatiniformes
(Angel sharks) > Squatinidae
Etymology: Squatina: Latin, squatina, -ae = a kind of shark (Ref. 45335); legnota: Derived from Greek legnotos meaning ‘having a coloured border’ with reference to the dark anterior edges of pectoral and pelvic fins (Ref. 74939) More on authors: Last & White.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; benthopelagic; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 6°S - 8°S
Indian Ocean: Indonesia. Occurs off southern Indonesia. Palabuhanratu in West Java, Cilacap in Central Java, Kedonganan in Bali, and Tanjung Luar in Lombok. Depth information not known.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 134 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 74939); 47.1 cm TL (female)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Body strongly depressed anteriorly, firm; trunk strongly depressed, almost ray-like, deepest
over abdomen; not tapering abruptly at pelvic-fin insertion, tail strongly depressed, even at origin of caudal fin. Abdomen moderately elongate. Head broad, extended laterally, strongly depressed; oval in cross-section; subcircular, with truncate anterior margin when viewed from above. Mouth large, terminal. Dermal denticles covering entire dorsal surface of body; less dense, absent on posterior borders of fins (Ref. 74939).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Last, P.R. and W.T. White, 2008. Three new angel sharks (Chondrichthyes:Squatinidae) from the Indo-Australian region. Zootaxa 1734:1-26. (Ref. 74939)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00741 (0.00282 - 0.01947), b=3.04 (2.81 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (65 of 100) .