Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Osmeriformes
(Smelts) > Retropinnidae
(New Zealand smelts) > Prototroctinae
Etymology: Prototroctes: Greek, pro = first, in front of + Greek, troktos, -e, -on = edible (Ref. 45335). More on author: Günther.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; amphidromous (Ref. 46888). Temperate; 10°C - 25°C (Ref. 2060); 34°S - 45°S
Oceania: coastal drainages of southeastern Australia from the Grose River near Sydney southward and westward to the eastern part of South Australia, including Tasmania and King Island in Bass Strait.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 33.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5259); common length : 18.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5259); max. reported age: 6 years (Ref. 5259)
Adults inhabit creeks and rivers, usually in cool, clear waters over gravel bottoms in sections alternating between pools and rapids. Usually found in clear, moderate to fast-flowing water in the upper reaches of rivers (sometimes to altitudes above 1000 meters). Often forming aggregations below barriers to upstream movement. Timid species that forms fast-moving shoals (Ref. 44894). Often form large schools especially prior to spawning. Feed on small crustaceans, insects and their larvae and algae. The intestinal tract is long, s specialization to assist in the breakdown of ingested plant material (Ref. 44894). Spawn: Feb.-May; 25,000-68,000 eggs which sink to bottom downstream of spawning site. Hatching: 10-20 days; larvae, 6-7 mm TL, swept downstream to estuaries and the sea, return to freshwater after 6 months.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Allen, G.R., 1989. Freshwater fishes of Australia. T.F.H. Publications, Inc., Neptune City, New Jersey. (Ref. 5259)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7656 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00372 (0.00153 - 0.00904), b=3.14 (2.92 - 3.36), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 2.8 ±0.34 se; Based on food items.
Generation time: 2.6 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median LN(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.45; tmax=6; Fec=25,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (29 of 100) .