Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Kurtiformes
(Nurseryfishes, cardinalfishes.) > Apogonidae
(Cardinalfishes) > Apogoninae
More on authors: Smith & Radcliffe.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; pelagic-neritic; depth range - 10 m (Ref. 90102), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Western Central Pacific: Philippines (Ref. 11356). Record from the Persian Gulf (Ref. 80050, 68964, 115963) needs confirmation.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 5.5 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 11356)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Solitary or in small groups. Found in dead reefs and mangrove fringe of estuaries and brackish lakes in 0-10 m (Ref 90102).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Mouthbrooders (Ref. 240). Distinct pairing during courtship and spawning (Ref. 205).
Radcliffe, L., 1912. Descriptions of fifteen new fishes of the family Cheilodipteridae, from the Philippine Islands and contiguous waters. Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus. 41(1868):431-446. (Ref. 11356)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 28.5 - 29.3, mean 28.8 °C (based on 583 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01479 (0.00690 - 0.03171), b=3.09 (2.91 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .