Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Syngnathiformes
(Pipefishes and seahorses) > Syngnathidae
(Pipefishes and seahorses) > Hippocampinae
Etymology: Hippocampus: Greek, ippos = horse + Greek,kampe = curvature (Ref. 45335); semispinosus: Named in reference to its spiny appearance that is intermediate between smooth and long-spined species.
This species is a synonym of Hippocampus spinosissimus Weber 1913 according to Lourie et al., 2016 (Ref. 115213). This species record will be removed.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; non-migratory; depth range 40 - 60 m (Ref. 58018). Tropical
Western Central Pacific: Indonesia. International trade is monitored through a licensing system (CITES II, since 5.15.04) and a minimum size of 10 cm applies. Also from Australia (questionable occurrence, Ref. 75154).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 18.0 cm OT male/unsexed; (Ref. 48635)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 4. Trunk rings 11; tail rings 35-36; subdorsal spines 3/0,1,0-0.5, usually enlarged on 11th trunk ring; nose ridge with straight profile and no spine; spine above eye small, length less than eye diameter, angled back; lateral head spine large, about twice in size of eye-spine and recurving; small spine behind eye, placed high above eye center; coronet well developed, with 5-7 diverging blunt spines with rugose tips, posterior spines enlarged and recurving; upper shoulder-ring spine long, situated at gill opening; lower shoulder-ring spine moderately large, with a poorly developed second spine anteriorly; superior trunk and tail ridges with rugose tubercles, enlarged on 1st and 7th rings as broad spines; superior tail ridge with spines of moderate length from 2nd to about 15th ring, somewhat enlarged on 5th and 8th ring, becoming gradually shorter posteriorly; lateral line with pores intermittently on trunk rings just above inferior ridge, extending onto tail to 17th-18th ring (Ref. 42735). Males dull yellowish brown with a series of distinctive white blotches on the trunk; females yellow or cream to reddish brown with broad saddle like banding behind the head and near dorsal fin (Ref. 48635).
Found on shallow coastal habitats, from near mangroves to deeper muddy channels, or deep offshore where known from trawls (Ref. 48635). Often with algae growth on the spiny ridges (Ref. 48635). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 205). The male carries the eggs in a brood pouch which is found under the tail (Ref. 205).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Male carries the eggs in a brood pouch (Ref. 205).
Kuiter, R.H., 2001. Revision of the Australian seahorses of the genus Hippocampus (Syngnathiformes: Syngnathidae) with descriptions of nine new species. Rec. Aus. Mus. 53:293-340. (Ref. 42735)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 119314)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25.5 - 28.3, mean 27.4 (based on 50 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00156 - 0.00968), b=2.99 (2.77 - 3.21), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.5 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (11 of 100) .