Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 20 - 50 m (Ref. 90102). Tropical
Indo-West Pacific: western Australia and the Indo-Australian archipelago. Also recorded from the Philippines (Ref. 42740).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 10.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 90102)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 16 - 20. Edges of scales of upper two-fifths of body dark brown, the centres pale. Upper part of body with 8 V-shaped dark bars faintly visible, becoming darker at the lower part of each V. A row of large dark brown spots on lower side of body. Two prominent oval black spots, one above the other, basally in caudal fin. Posterior margin of preopercle and opercle strongly serrate. Cheek scales ctenoid. Body elongate, its depth 5.7 to 6.9 SL (Ref 42740).
Found on open sand or muddy bottoms with small reef or debris outcrops (Ref. 48636). Mainly known from trawls in depths over 35 m (Ref. 48636). Found near reefs in open mud bottoms at depths of 20-50 m (Ref. 90102).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Allen, G.R., 1997. The marine fishes of tropical Australia and south-east Asia. Western Australian Museum, Perth, Western Australia. 292 p. (Ref. 36661)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 23.3 - 28.5, mean 27 °C (based on 107 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00646 (0.00290 - 0.01435), b=3.10 (2.92 - 3.28), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (12 of 100) .