Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Nemipteridae
(Threadfin breams, Whiptail breams)
Etymology: Scolopsis: Greek, skolex = worm + Greek, opsis = appearance (Ref. 45335). More on author: Kner.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 20 m (Ref. 9785), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 24°N - 25°S, 113°E - 167°W (Ref. 3810)
Western Pacific: South China Sea to Samoa, north to the Philippines, south to Scott Reef, New Caledonia and Tonga (Ref. 37816).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 90102); common length : 14.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3810)
soft rays: 7. Head scales reaching forward to level of middle of eyes. Lower limb of preopercle naked. Antrorse (forward-directed) suborbital spine absent. Pelvic fins long, reaching to or just beyond level of anus. Axillary scale present. Color: Upper body dusky grey or brown, silvery-white below. Scales on sides with pearly-blue centers. 3 bluish-white stripes on snout.
Inhabits sandy bottoms in lagoons and areas close to reefs and mangroves. Occurs singly or in small aggregations (Ref. 9785).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Russell, B.C., 1990. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 12. Nemipterid fishes of the world. (Threadfin breams, whiptail breams, monocle breams, dwarf monocle breams, and coral breams). Family Nemipteridae. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of nemipterid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(12):149p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 3810)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 26.5 - 29.3, mean 28.6 °C (based on 1681 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01738 (0.00778 - 0.03880), b=2.98 (2.81 - 3.15), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (25 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 72.1 [42.7, 144.0] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.72 [0.40, 1.24] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.1 [17.2, 20.9] % ; Omega3 = 0.155 [0.090, 0.264] g/100g ; Selenium = 35.7 [19.8, 62.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 61.2 [16.1, 170.3] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.33 [0.83, 1.98] mg/100g (wet weight);