Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Nemipteridae
(Threadfin breams, Whiptail breams)
Etymology: Pentapodus: Greek, pente = five + Greek, pous = feet (Ref. 45335). More on author: Bloch.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 2 - 30 m (Ref. 9785), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 31°N - 16°S, 102°E - 166°E (Ref. 3810)
Western Pacific: Solomon Islands, New Guinea, western Caroline Islands (Palau, Yap), Philippines, East Malaysia, Indonesia and Singapore. This species has previously been misidentified as Pentapodus caninus by most authors.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 28.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 90102); common length : 15.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3810)
soft rays: 7. Some geographical variations. In Sulawesi shows yellow band intermittently because of other similar species in the same area (Ref. 48635). Head scales reaching forward to or just in front of level of anterior margin of eyes. Suborbital naked except for a small patch of scales beneath eyes. Lower limb of preopercle with 2 or 3 scale rows. Pelvic fins moderately long, reaching almost to level of anus. Axillary scale present. Color: Upper body dark grey or olive-brown, silvery white below. Presence of a narrow silvery white stripe joining eyes across snout just behind nostrils. Base of pectoral fin with a black bar.
Clear coastal to outer reef crests (Ref. 48635). Common in shallow sandy rubble and coral reef areas. Usually in aggregations. Feeds on small fishes, crustaceans and polychaetes during the day (Ref. 9710).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Russell, B.C., 1990. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 12. Nemipterid fishes of the world. (Threadfin breams, whiptail breams, monocle breams, dwarf monocle breams, and coral breams). Family Nemipteridae. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of nemipterid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(12):149p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 3810)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 27.8 - 29.3, mean 28.8 °C (based on 1711 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5002 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01995 (0.01130 - 0.03523), b=3.01 (2.86 - 3.16), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.53 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (26 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 67.6 [40.3, 133.6] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.69 [0.38, 1.21] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.2 [17.2, 20.9] % ; Omega3 = 0.155 [0.091, 0.263] g/100g ; Selenium = 36.5 [20.3, 64.8] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 61.6 [16.4, 170.1] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.27 [0.79, 1.89] mg/100g (wet weight);