Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 10 m (Ref. 9710). Tropical; 30°N - 28°S
Pacific Ocean: Ryukyu Islands to the Line Islands and Mangaréva, south to the Great Barrier Reef and the Austral Islands; Caroline, Mariana, and the Wake islands in Micronesia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 9.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 559)
Common along surge-swept reef fronts and submarine terraces to a depth of about 11 m. Usually seen hiding among branches of live corals (Stylophora mordax, Pocillopora elegans, P. eydouxi, or P. verrucosa). Retreats deep into the coral when approached (Ref. 9710). Feeds on small crustaceans (Ref. 89972). Oviparous, monogamous (Ref. 52884). Highly priced aquarium fish, requires well-oxygenated water and fades in captivity (Ref. 37816).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Pelagic spawners (Ref. 31569). Monogamous mating is observed as both facultative and social (Ref. 52884). Also Ref. 103751.
Randall, J.E., G.R. Allen and R.C. Steene, 1990. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii. 506 p. (Ref. 2334)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25.2 - 29.4, mean 28 °C (based on 993 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01585 (0.00628 - 0.03998), b=3.01 (2.79 - 3.23), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.50 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months ().
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 103 [60, 171] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.695 [0.415, 1.189] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.7 [17.6, 19.8] % ; Omega3 = 0.161 [0.095, 0.267] g/100g ; Selenium = 20.4 [10.6, 40.2] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 161 [49, 505] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.56 [1.02, 2.34] mg/100g (wet weight);