Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 23 m (Ref. 58302), usually 1 - 3 m (Ref. 58302). Tropical; 30°N - 33°S, 26°E - 124°W
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa (Ref. 5470) to the Marquesan Islands and Mangaréva, north to southern Japan and the Hawaiian Islands, south to the Kermadec and Rapa Islands.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9947); common length : 23.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9947)
Inhabits reef fronts and rocky shorelines exposed to moderate to strong surge to depths of about 3 m (Ref. 9947). Benthic (Ref. 58302). Feeds primarily on crabs, also takes other crustaceans, small fishes, sea urchins or brittle stars. Marketed fresh (Ref. 9947).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Pelagic spawner (Ref. 31569). Spawning ascents into the water column occurred over a distance of 1.5 to 2.0 m (Ref. 26305). Further histological evidence is needed to establish protogyny (Ref. 103751).
Randall, J.E., G.R. Allen and R.C. Steene, 1990. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii. 506 p. (Ref. 2334)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.7 - 29.3, mean 28.2 °C (based on 2984 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00912 (0.00355 - 0.02342), b=3.07 (2.85 - 3.29), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.3 se; based on diet studies.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (16 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 59 [40, 110] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.618 [0.378, 0.900] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.5 [18.6, 20.4] % ; Omega3 = 0.154 [0.114, 0.208] g/100g ; Selenium = 35.7 [21.8, 55.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 81.9 [34.1, 187.1] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.25 [0.92, 1.65] mg/100g (wet weight);