Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Gadiformes
(Cods) > Macrouridae
(Grenadiers or rattails) > Macrourinae
Etymology: Hymenocephalus: Named for its transparent membrane-like head covering (‘‘hymen head’’) and fragile nature of head bones (Ref. 100825).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; benthopelagic; depth range 340 - 1348 m (Ref. 58302). Deep-water
Widespread but patchy and discontinuous. Atlantic: Caribbean and continental slope of northern South America. Pacific: off subtropical western and eastern Australia, several islands in the southern Pacific (New Caledonia, Vanuatu, Wallis & Futuna, Marquesas Islands), and off Hawaii. Not recorded from eastern Atlantic nor Indian Ocean.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 37108)
Morphology | Morphometrics
This species is distinguished by the following characters: a black-colored large-headed fish, with head size 21-25% TL; pelvic fin rays 13-14; pectoral fin rays 13-16; projecting snout, 20-24% HL; head bones are papery thin and often distorted; no barbel; small orbit diameter, 20-24% HL; interorbital width 60-70% HW; infraorbital width 20-25% HL; postorbital-preopercular interspace 10-14% HL; preopercular supporter is very small and forked; gill rakers 21-25; ventral striae reaching to about ? from pelvic fin bases to periproct; small otolith with rounded outline, no predorsal lobe developed; colliculi separated; otholith length to height (OL:OH), 1.0-1.2; total colliculum length to pseudocolliculum length (TCL:PCL) is 2.2-2.8 (Ref. 98298).
Found on the continental slope (Ref. 75154). Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Cohen, D.M., A.W. Ebeling, T. Iwamoto, S.B. McDowell, N.B. Marshall, D.E. Rosen, P. Sonoda, W.H. Weed III and L.P. Woods, 1973. Fishes of the western North Atlantic. Part six. New Haven, Sears Found. Mar. Res., Yale Univ. (Ref. 37108)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 119314)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 5.1 - 10.2, mean 7.1 (based on 622 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00219 (0.00095 - 0.00502), b=3.17 (2.98 - 3.36), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.4 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (30 of 100) .