Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Scaridae
(Parrotfishes) > Scarinae
Etymology: Scarus: Greek, skaros = a fish described by anciente writers as a parrot fish; 1601 (Ref. 45335). More on author: Valenciennes.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 30 m (Ref. 9710). Tropical; 30°N - 24°S
Indo-Pacific: East Africa to the Tuamoto Islands, north to the Ryukyu Islands, south to Lord Howe Island.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 45.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5490)
soft rays: 9. Adults identified by lines radiating from eyes, two of which running over the top of the head (Ref. 48636). Coloration changes slowly with growth. Males develop a distinctive lump on the forehead.
Found in clear lagoon and seaward reefs (Ref. 1602). Feeds on benthic algae (Ref. 3488). Uncommon (Ref. 90102).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205).
Parenti, P. and J.E. Randall, 2000. An annotated checklist of the species of the labroid fish families Labridae and Scaridae. Ichthyol. Bull. J.L.B. Smith Inst. Ichthyol. (68):1-97. (Ref. 35918)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25.1 - 29.3, mean 28.4 °C (based on 3060 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01202 (0.00654 - 0.02211), b=3.15 (2.99 - 3.31), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.0 ±0.00 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (29 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 54.1 [25.9, 112.1] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.988 [0.523, 1.889] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.1 [14.9, 19.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.126 [0.060, 0.262] g/100g ; Selenium = 20 [8, 51] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 27.2 [6.2, 117.8] μg/100g ; Zinc = 3.18 [1.98, 5.03] mg/100g (wet weight);