Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic. Tropical
South America: headwaters of the Tietê River basin in Brazil.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 6.1 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 32783); 6.1 cm SL (female)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 12 - 13;
Vertebrae: 35 - 36. The eyes of S. papilliferus (18.4-26.0% HL) are the smallest of the four species of Spintherobolus; the caudal peduncle length is the longest, being 23.8-24.6% SL in males and 21.3-27.0% SL in females; the anal-fin rays of adult males are not expanded in a sagittal plane; segments of anal-fin rays of adult males are not fused; an anterior extension of the proximal end of the lepidotrichia of the anal-fin rays of males is absent.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Weitzman, S.H. and L.R. Malabarba, 1999. Systematics of Spintherobolus (Teleostei: Characidae: Cheirodontinae) from eastern Brazil. Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwat. 10(1):1-43. (Ref. 32783)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02344 (0.00872 - 0.06299), b=2.86 (2.63 - 3.09), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 2.3 ±0.4 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .