Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 27 - 364 m (Ref. 5951), usually 36 - 91 m (Ref. 5951). Temperate; 54°N - 37°N
Northwest Atlantic: southern Labrador, Canada to Chesapeake Bay, USA.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 29.8  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 64.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251); max. published weight: 1.5 kg (Ref. 9988); max. reported age: 12 years (Ref. 6286)
Adults inhabit sandy to muddy bottoms (Ref. 7251). Prefer depths of 37 to 82 m at temperatures of 3-5°C (Ref. 6263). Feed mainly on polychaete worms and amphipods, shrimps, isopods and other crustaceans and occasionally small fish such as sand lance and capelin (Ref. 12232). Batch spawner (Ref. 51846). Marketed fresh or frozen; eaten steamed, fried, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988).
Cooper, J.A. and F. Chapleau, 1998. Monophyly and intrarelationships of the family Pleuronectidae (Pleuronectiformes), with a revised classification. Fish. Bull. 96(4):686-726. (Ref. 30193)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: experimental
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 0.4 - 9.7, mean 2.6 °C (based on 134 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00955 (0.00470 - 0.01940), b=3.08 (2.91 - 3.25), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.1 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 3.3 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (rm=0.69; K=0.3; tm=2-6; tmax=12).
Prior r = 0.91, 95% CL = 0.60 - 1.37, Based on 2 stock assessments.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (37 of 100) .